• Congiuntivo Presente

     

    The verb forms you have learned so far belong to the indicative mood, which states facts and conveys certainty or objectivity

     

    The subjunctive mood, in contrast, express uncertainty doubt, possibility, or personal feelings rather than fact. It conveys the opinions and attitudes of the speaker.



    Indicativo                                                                    Congiuntivo

    Gli studenti organizzano una manifestazione.                Credo che gli studenti

    Students are organizing a demonstration                       organizzino una manifestazione

     

    Anche gli insegnanti fanno sciopero.                      È probabile che anche gli insegnanti facciano

    The teachers are striking too.                                It’s probable that teachers are striking too.

     

    Il governo non applica le riforme                         È male che il governo non applichi le riforme

    The government isn’t enforcing the reform.           It’s bad that the government isn’t forcing the reforms.

     

     



    In English, the subjunctive is used infrequently: I move that the meeting be adjourned. We suggest that he go home immediately. In Italian, however, the subjunctive is used often, in both speaking and writing.

    1. In Italian the subjunctive is generally used in the dependent clause of a two-clause sentence, just as in English. You can see this pattern in the following chart:

     

    Independent clause (in indicativo) + che + dependent clause (in congiuntivo).

    Credo                     che    organizzino una manifestazione.

     

    The subjunctive mood has four tenses: present, past, imperfect, and plurperfect. You will learn how to form the present subjunctive in this section; the past subjunctive is presented in Grammatica C of this chapter.



    1. The present subjunctive (il congiuntivo presente) is formed by adding the appropriate endings to the infinitive stem. There are different endings for -are, -ere, and -ire verbs. Verbs ending in -ire that insert -isc in the present indicative also do so in the present subjunctive.

     

    Che io          parli          scriva      dorma      capisca

    Che tu          parli         scriva       dorma      capisca

    Che lui/lei     parli          scriva      dorma      capisca

    Che  noi       parliamo      scriviamo     dormiamo     capiamo

    Che voi        parliate      scriviate      dormiate      capiate

    Che  loro      parlino      scrivano      dormano      capiscano

     

    Note in the preceding chart that most forms of the present subjunctive of -are verbs have i endings, while most forms of -ere and -ire verbs have a endings. Note also that the three singular forms of the present subjunctive are identical. For this reason subject pronouns are often used with them to avoid confusion or misunderstandings

     

    3:

    1. Verbs whose infinitives end in -care and -gare add an h, in all persons, between the stem and the present subjunctive endings

     

    E bene che il governo cerchi di diminuire le tasse

    Purtroppo, bisogna che tutti paghino le tasse

     

    1. Verbs ending in -iare drop the i from the stem before adding the present subjunctive endings.

     

    È necessario che cominciate a organizzarvi!

    Quando si è disoccupati, è probabile che si magi meno



    The following verbs have irregular present subjunctive forms. As with regular verbs, all three singular forms of these verbs are identical

     

    Andare-     vada     andiamo     andiate     vadano

    Avere-       abbia    abbiamo     abbiate     abbiano

    Bere-         beva    beviamo    beviate    bevano

    Dare-        dia       diamo        diate        diano

    Dire-         dica      diciamo    diciate        dicano

    Dovere-     debba   dobbiamo     dobbiate     debbano

    Essere-     sia         siamo         siate         siano

    Fare-         faccia    facciamo    facciate    facciano

    Piacere-     piaccia                                  piacciano

    Potere-     possa      possiamo     possiate     possano

    Sapere-     sappia    stiamo     stiate         stiano

    Uscire-     esca        usciamo     usciate     escano

    Venire-     venga         veniamo     veniate     vengano

    Volere-     voglia         vogliamo     vogliate     vogliano

     

    The subjunctive is not used in every sentence that has an independant and a dependent clause. You will learn how to decide when to use the subjunctive in the dependent clause in grammatica B. However, you will use the subjunctive in the dependent clause of all of the exercise items in this section. Pay attention to the content of the independent clauses and see if you can predict what a “clausing” the use of the subjunctive in the dependent clauses.



    :)