• Grammar Lesson:

    Some verbs conjugate with AVERE to form the past tenseand others conjugate with ESSERE to form the past tense. 

     

    To create the past tense:

    1.    conjugate the verb AVERE or ESSERE in the present tense

    2.    follow it with the past participle of the verb you are looking to put in the past

     

    To create the past participle:

    1.    Take the base of the verb

    2.    Add the following endings:

    -      are verbs: base + ATO

    -      ere verbs: base + UTO

    -      ire verbs: base + ITO

     

    Some verbs have irregular past participles:

     

     Here are some IRREGULAR verbs that conjugate in the past with the verb AVERE:

     

    VERB INFINITIVE

    PAST PARTICIPLE

    ENGLISH DEFINITION

     

     

     

    fare

    fatto

    to do/make

    chiedere

    chiesto

    to ask for

    chiudere

    chiuso

    to close/to shut

    correre

    corso

    to run

    decidere

    deciso

    to decide

    dipingere

    dipinto

    to paint

    leggere

    letto

    to read

    mettere

    messo

    to put or put on / to place

    perdere

    perso

    to lose/miss

    prendere

    preso

    to take

    rispondere

    risposto

    to respond

    scrivere

    scritto

    to write

    vedere

    visto

    to see

    bere

    bevuto

    to drink

    aprire

    aperto

    to open

    dire

    detto

    to say / to tell

    offrire

    offerto

    to “treat” to offer

     

     
     Here are some IRREGULAR verbs that conjugate in the past with the verb ESSERE:
     

     

    VERB INFINITIVE

    PAST PARTICIPLE

    ENGLISH DEFINITION

     

     

     

    essere  

    stato/a

    to be




    rimanere

    rimasto/a

    to remain




    nascere

    nato/a

    to be born




    morire     
    morto/a
    to die









                            

     When to conjugate with ESSERE:
    - states of being such as coming, going, becoming or staying (think of being born as coming into life and think of dying as going out of life)
     
    NOTE: When making the passato prossimo with ESSERE, you must change the last letter of ATO, UTO or ITO to be masculine or feminine and singular or plural.