• 1 or "a" = un, uno (z or s+consonant), una, un' (begins with a vowel)
     
    When going from the singular to the plural, articles change and the last letter of the noun changes.
    For example:
     
    un libro
    due libri
     
    una penna
    due penne
     
    C'è = there is
     
    Ci sono = there are
     
    Last letter of noun - what it changes to in the plural
    a - e
    o - i
    e - i
     
    C'è uno studente.
    Ci sono 5 studenti.
     
     NOTE: There are three exceptions to when the ending doesn't change:
    1. When there is a foreign word: it usually takes the masculine and the ending doesn't change.
    Esempio: un cinema - due cinema
     
    2. When there is a short name, the ending doesn't change:
    Esempi:  una bici - due bici
    una moto - due moto
     
    3. When there is an accent over the last letter of the noun, the ending doesn't change:
    Exempi:  una città - due città
    un'univiersità - due università
     
    NOTE Also:
    Some words may already have an "i" as the second to the last letter, as in "stadio". In that case you do not need to add a second "i" when you make it plural.
    Exempio: uno stadio - due stadi
     
    However: zio DOES get the extra "i": uno zio - due zii
     

     

    Definite ARTICLES that mean “the”:

     

     

    Masculine

    Masculine

    (begins with vowel)

    Masculine

    (s+cons or z)

    Singular

    il

    l’

    lo

    Plural

    i

    gli

    gli

     

     

     

    Feminine

    Feminine

    (begins with vowel)

     

    Singular

    la

    l’

     

    Plural

    le

    le

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Indefinite ARTICLES that mean “a”:

     

     

    Masculine

    Masculine

    (begins with vowel)

    Masculine

    (s+cons or z)

    Singular

    un

    un

    uno

    Plural

    ----

    -----

    -----

     

     

     

    Feminine

    Feminine

    (begins with vowel)

     

    Singular

    una

    un’

     

    Plural

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    ------

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